Wednesday, 3 January 2018

Understanding Sjogren's Syndrome, Symptoms And Risks Factors

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Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes. Autoimmune diseases feature the abnormal production of extra antibodies in the blood that are directed against various tissues of the body. The misdirected immune system in autoimmunity tends to lead to inflammation of tissues. This particular autoimmune illness features inflammation and dysfunction in glands of the body that are responsible for producing tears and saliva.


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Inflammation of the glands that produce tears (lacrimal glands) leads to decreased water production for tears and dry eyes . Inflammation of the glands that produce the saliva in the mouth (salivary glands, including the parotid glands) leads to decreased saliva production and dry mouth and dry lips. About 50% of patients with Sjögren syndrome have cutaneous findings, such as dry skin (xeroderma), palpable and nonpalpable purpura, and/or urticaria. (See Etiology, Presentation, and Workup.)

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Primary Sjögren syndrome occurs in the absence of another underlying rheumatic disorder, whereas secondary shoterm syndrome is associated with another underlying rheumatic disease, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or scleroderma . Given the overlap of Sjögren syndrome with many other rheumatic disorders, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether a clinical manifestation is solely a consequence of Sjögren syndrome or is due to one of its overlapping disorders.

Symptoms Of Sjogren's Disease

Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes. Autoimmune diseases feature the abnormal production of extra antibodies in the blood that are directed against various tissues of the body. The misdirected immune system in autoimmunity tends to lead to inflammation of tissues. This particular autoimmune illness features inflammation and dysfunction in glands of the body that are responsible for producing tears and saliva.

Inflammation of the glands that produce tears (lacrimal glands) leads to decreased water production for tears and dry eyes . Inflammation of the glands that produce the saliva in the mouth (salivary glands, including the parotid glands) leads to decreased saliva production and dry mouth and dry lips.
Some people with Sjogren's syndrome also have one or more of the following:

  • swallowing difficulties
  • Dental decay
  • Cavities
  • Gum disease 
  • Mouth sores and swelling
  • Hoarseness or impaired voice
  • Abnormality of taste or loss of taste
  • Dry cough 
  • Joint pain, swelling and stiffness
  • Skin rashes or dry skin
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Persistent dry cough
  • Prolonged fatigue

Risk factors
Sjogren's syndrome typically occurs in people with one or more known risk factors, including:

  • Age : Sjogren's syndrome is usually diagnosed in people older than 40.
  • Sex : Women are much more likely to have Sjogren's syndrome.
  • Rheumatic disease.: It's common for people who have Sjogren's syndrome to also have a rheumatic disease such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.
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Author: Richard Smith