Tuesday, 9 January 2018

Causes Of Hand, Foot And Mouth Disease / Prevention Procedures

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Hand-foot-and-mouth disease a mild, contagious viral infection common in young children is characterized by sores in the mouth and a rash on the hands and feet. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is most commonly caused by a coxsackievirus.

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There's no specific treatment for hand-foot-and-mouth disease. Frequent hand-washing and avoiding close contact with people who are infected with hand-foot-and-mouth disease may help reduce your child's risk of infection. Sores that develop in the back of the mouth and throat may suggest that your child is infected with a related viral illness called herpangina. Other distinguishing features of herpangina include a sudden high fever and in some instances, seizure. Sores that develop on the hands, feet or other parts of the body are very rare.
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You don't usually need medical attention if you think you or your child has hand, foot and mouth disease. The infection will usually pass in 7 to 10 days, and there isn't much your doctor can do. Antibiotics won't help as hand, foot and mouth disease is caused by a virus. Get advice from your GP if you're pregnant and you become infected within a few weeks of your due date. Infection in pregnancy is usually nothing to worry about, but there's a small chance it could make your baby ill if you're infected shortly before you give birth.

Causes Of Hand, Foot And Mouth Disease
Hand, foot, and mouth disease is caused by viruses that belong to the Enterovirus genus (group), including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and enteroviruses.
◾Coxsackievirus A16 is the most common cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease in the United States, but other coxsackieviruses can also cause the illness.
◾ Enterovirus 71 has also been associated with cases and outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease. Less often, enterovirus 71 has been associated with severe disease, such as encephalitis.
Several types of enteroviruses may be identified in outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease, however most of the time, one or two enteroviruses are identified more frequently.

Oral ingestion is the main source of coxsackievirus infection and hand-foot-and-mouth disease. The illness spreads by person-to-person contact with an infected person's:

  • Nasal secretions or throat discharge
  • Saliva
  • Fluid from blisters
  • Stool
  • Respiratory droplets sprayed into the air after a cough or sneeze

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An infected person may spread the viruses that cause hand, foot, and mouth disease to another person through:
close personal contact,
the air (through coughing or sneezing),
contact with feces,
contact with contaminated objects and surfaces.
For example, you might get infected by kissing someone who has hand, foot, and mouth disease or by touching a doorknob that has viruses on it then touching your eyes, mouth or nose.

Prevention
Certain precautions can help to reduce the risk of infection with hand-foot-and-mouth disease:

Wash hands carefully : Be sure to wash your hands frequently and thoroughly, especially after using the toilet or changing a diaper and before preparing food and eating. When soap and water aren't available, use hand wipes or gels treated with germ-killing alcohol.
  Disinfect common areas : Get in the habit of cleaning high-traffic areas and surfaces first with soap and water, then with a diluted solution of chlorine bleach and water. Child care centers should follow a strict schedule of cleaning and disinfecting all common areas, including shared items such as toys, as the virus can live on these objects for days. Clean your baby's pacifiers often.
  Teach good hygiene : Show your children how to practice good hygiene and how to keep themselves clean. Explain to them why it's best not to put their fingers, hands or any other objects in their mouths.
  Isolate contagious people : Because hand-foot-and-mouth disease is highly contagious, people with the illness should limit their exposure to others while they have active signs and symptoms. Keep children with hand-foot-and-mouth disease out of child care or school until fever is gone and mouth sores have healed. If you have the illness, stay home from work.

It’s also important to disinfect any common areas in your home on a regular basis. Get in the habit of cleaning shared surfaces first with soap and water, then with a diluted solution of bleach and water. You should also disinfect toys, pacifiers, and other objects that may be contaminated with the virus. If you or your child experience symptoms such as a fever or sore throat, stay home from school or work. You should continue avoiding contact with others once the telltale blisters and rashes develop. This can help you avoid spreading the disease to others.


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Author: Richard Smith