Saturday, 30 December 2017

Treatments For Hashimoto's Thyroiditis And Its Diagnosis

Treatments For Hashimoto's Thyroiditis And Its Diagnosis

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When you have Hashimoto's thyroiditis, your immune cells mistakenly attack your healthy thyroid tissue. When this occurs, your thyroid can become inflamed and enlarged to the point that you develop a goiter.
The primary sign of a goiter is visible swelling in the front of your neck. At first, the bulge may be painless. But if left untreated, it can put pressure on your lower neck. In advanced stages, a goiter can interfere with proper breathing and swallowing.

Diagnosis For Hashimoto's thyroiditis
A physician should assess symptoms and complaints commonly seen in hypothyroidism, carefully examine the neck to look for enlargement of the thyroid gland, and take a detailed history of family members. Blood tests are essential to diagnose Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Specific blood tests determine the level of thyroid function, hashimoto's thyroiditis can be diagnosed using any of the methods below -

  • Hormone Test : During the early stage of thyroiditis, the levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) may be normal. With chronic hypothyroidism, the thyroid hormone levels fall, and the level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) becomes high. The most useful assay for determining thyroid status is measurement of TSH in the blood. As mentioned earlier, TSH is secreted by the pituitary gland  . As the level of thyroid hormone falls, the pituitary gland responds by releasing more thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The increase in TSH can actually precede the fall of thyroid hormone to low levels by months or years, so the first sign of hypothyroidism may be an elevated TSH level even when levels of thyroid hormones are normal. 
  • Antibody Test : Because Hashimoto's disease is an autoimmune disorder, the cause involves production of abnormal antibodies. A blood test may confirm the presence of antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPO antibodies), an enzyme normally found in the thyroid gland that plays an important role in the production of thyroid hormones.

Treatments For Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

There is no cure for Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The timeframe of the autoimmune process and inflammation will continue is not predictable. In the vast majority of patients, hypothyroidism results from the inflammatory process.
Thyroid hormone medication can replace the hormones the thyroid made before the inflammation started. There are two major thyroid hormones made by a healthy gland (T3 and T4). Replacing one or both of these hormones can alleviate the symptoms caused by the absolute or relative lack of hormones as a consequence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Treatment for Hashimoto's disease may include observation and use of medications. If there's no evidence of hormone deficiency, and your thyroid is functioning normally, your doctor may suggest a wait-and-see approach. If you need medication, chances are you'll need it for the rest of your life.


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Synthetic hormones
If Hashimoto's disease causes thyroid hormone deficiency, you may need replacement therapy with thyroid hormone. This usually involves daily use of the synthetic thyroid hormone levothyroxine (Levoxyl, Synthroid, others). Synthetic levothyroxine is identical to thyroxine, the natural version of this hormone made by your thyroid gland. The oral medication restores adequate hormone levels and reverses all the symptoms of hypothyroidism.


To determine the right dosage of levothyroxine initially, your doctor generally checks your level of TSH after a few weeks of treatment. Excessive amounts of thyroid hormone can accelerate bone loss, which may make osteoporosis worse or add to your risk of this disease. Overtreatment with levothyroxine can also cause heart rhythm disorders (arrhythmias). Once you start treatment, your doctor will order a lab test called a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) test to monitor thyroid function and help ensure you are getting the right dose.

  1. Also Read > 5 Factors That Causes Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Disease You Should Know
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Because thyroid hormones act very slowly in the body, it may take a few months for symptoms to go away and your goiter to shrink. However, large goiters that do not improve may make it necessary to remove the thyroid gland.



5 Factors That Causes Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Disease You Should Know

5 Factors That Causes Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Disease You Should Know

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Hashimoto's disease is an autoimmune disorder in which your immune system creates antibodies that damage your thyroid gland. Doctors don't know what causes your immune system to attack your thyroid gland. Some scientists think a virus or bacterium might trigger the response, while others believe a genetic flaw may be involved.


Hashimoto's thyroiditis is diagnosed by blood tests that measure thyroid gland function and blood tests that look for antibodies against proteins found in the thyroid gland.The treatment for Hashimoto's thyroiditis is oral administration of thyroid hormones to maintain normal levels.

Causes of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

Doctors don't know what causes your immune system to attack your thyroid gland. Some scientists thinks that a virus or bacterium might trigger the response, while others believe a genetic flaw may be involved. The exact cause of Hashimoto's is not known, but many factors are believed to play a role. They include:

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  1. Other autoimmune disease : Having another autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes or lupus increases your risk of developing Hashimoto's disease. 
  2. Hormones : Hashimoto's affects about seven times as many women as men, suggesting that sex hormones may play a role. Furthermore, some women have thyroid problems during the first year after having a baby . Although the problem usually goes away, as many as 20% of these women develop Hashimoto's years later. 
  3. Excessive iodine : Research suggests certain drugs and too much iodine, a trace element required by your body to make thyroid hormones, may trigger thyroid disease in susceptible people. 
  4. Radiation exposure : Increased cases of thyroid disease have been reported in people exposed to radiation, including the atomic bombs in Japan, the Chernobyl nuclear accident, and radiation treatment for a form of blood cancer called Hodgkin's disease . 
  5. Heredity : You're at higher risk for Hashimoto's disease if others in your family have thyroid or other autoimmune diseases.
People with Hashimoto's thyroiditis do not need to follow a special diet. There is no evidence to suggest that specific foods have any effect on worsening or improving the condition. The prognosis for someone with Hashimoto's thyroiditis is excellent with proper treatment. Restoration of thyroid hormone levels with medical treatment will reverse the signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism .

  1. Also Read > Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, Its Symptoms And Alarming Health Risks (Hashimoto's Disease)
  2. Treatments For Hashimoto's Thyroiditis And How It Can Be Diagnosed 
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Without treatment, hypothyroidism can worsen over years, potentially leading to organ damage and severe illness.



Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, Its Symptoms And Health Risks (Hashimoto's Disease)

Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, Its Symptoms And Health Risks (Hashimoto's Disease)

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Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States. It is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies directed against the thyroid gland lead to chronic inflammation. It is not known why some people make antibodies, although this condition tends to run in families. Over time, however, this results in impaired ability of the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones, leading to gradual decline in function and eventually an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). Hashimoto’s thyroiditis occurs most commonly in middle aged women, but can be seen at any age, and can also affect men, and children.

It's possible to have Hashimoto's thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid gland for years without experiencing a single symptom. But there are hallmark signs and symptoms of this common disorder, and it's important that you know what they are. The sooner you recognize the symptoms, the sooner you can receive effective treatment.
If you have symptoms of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, they will be associated with the disorder's 2 primary complications goiter and hypothyroidism .


Symptoms To Note
You might not notice signs or symptoms of Hashimoto's disease at first, or you may notice a swelling at the front of your throat (goiter). Hashimoto's disease typically progresses slowly over years and causes chronic thyroid damage, leading to a drop in thyroid hormone levels in your blood. The signs and symptoms are mainly those of an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism).
The first sign of the disease is often an enlarged thyroid, called a goiter. The goiter may cause the front of your neck to look swollen. A large goiter may make swallowing difficult. Other symptoms includes the following -

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  • Unexplained weight gain
  • Fatigue
  • Enlargement of the tongue
  • Paleness or puffiness of the face
  • Constipation 
  • Inability to get warm
  • Increased sensitivity to cold
  • Joint and muscle pain
  • Hair loss or thinning, brittle hair
  • Depression 
  • Swelling of the thyroid gland (due to the inflammation), which can cause a feeling of tightness or fullness in the throat
  • Slowed heart rate
  • Muscle aches, tenderness and stiffness
  • Muscle weakness
  • Excessive or prolonged menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia)
  • Memory lapses
  • A lump in the front of the neck from the enlarged thyroid gland called a goiter

Health Complications And Risks


  • Goiter : Constant stimulation of your thyroid to release more hormones may cause the gland to become enlarged, a condition known as goiter. Hypothyroidism is one of the most common causes of goiters. Although generally not uncomfortable, a large goiter can affect your appearance and may interfere with swallowing or breathing.
  • Heart problems : Hashimoto's disease also may be associated with an increased risk of heart disease, primarily because high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol the "bad" cholesterol can occur in people with an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism). If left untreated, hypothyroidism can lead to an enlarged heart and, possibly, heart failure.
  • Mental health issues : Depression may occur early in Hashimoto's disease and may become more severe over time. Hashimoto's disease can also cause sexual desire (libido) to decrease in both men and women and can lead to slowed mental functioning.
  • Myxedema (miks-uh-DEE-muh) : This rare, life-threatening condition can develop due to long-term hypothyroidism as a result of untreated Hashimoto's disease. Its signs and symptoms include drowsiness followed by profound lethargy and unconsciousness. A myxedema coma may be triggered by exposure to cold, sedatives, infection or other stress on your body. Myxedema requires immediate emergency medical treatment.
  • Birth defects : Babies born to women with untreated hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's disease may have a higher risk of birth defects than do babies born to healthy mothers. Doctors have long known that these children are more prone to intellectual and developmental problems. There may be a link between hypothyroid pregnancies and birth defects, such as a cleft palate. A connection also exists between hypothyroid pregnancies and heart, brain and kidney problems in infants. If you're planning to get pregnant or if you're in early pregnancy, be sure to have your thyroid level checked.

As hypothyroidism becomes more severe, there may be puffiness around the eyes, a slowing of the heart rate, a drop in body temperature, and heart failure . In its most profound form, severe hypothyroidism may lead to a life-threatening coma ( myxedema coma ). In a severely hypothyroid individual, myxedema coma tends to be triggered by severe illness, surgery, stress , or traumatic injury. This condition requires hospitalization and immediate treatment with thyroid hormone. Properly diagnosed, hypothyroidism can be easily and completely treated with thyroid hormone replacement. Untreated hypothyroidism can lead to an enlarged heart ( cardiomyopathy), worsening heart failure, and an accumulation of fluid around the lungs ( pleural effusion) or heart ( pericardial effusion).



Friday, 29 December 2017

What Raynaud's Disease is, Its Symptoms And Alarming Health Risks

What Raynaud's Disease is, Its Symptoms And Alarming Health Risks



Raynaud's phenomenon is a disorder characterized by blood vessel abnormality caused by overactivity of smooth muscle in the wall of arteries, leading to spasms (vasospasms with narrowing) of the small vessels that supply blood to the arms, legs, hands, feet , and sometimes the ears and nose. The typical features of Raynaud's phenomenon include changes in the color of skin from pale to bluish to red, which typically occur after exposure to cold temperatures. Raynaud's phenomenon is usually diagnosed in people younger than 40 years of age and occurs five times more frequently in women than in men. The disorder is sometimes referred to as "white fingers disease."
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A person with Raynaud's disease experiences pain in the extremities, for example, the fingers, when temperatures drop. Blood vessels narrow and almost completely shut down. Fingers or toes turn from white to blue and, then, as the blood returns, they flush red. Also known as Raynaud's syndrome or Raynaud's phenomenon, Raynaud's disease affects 5 to 10 percent of Americans, but only 1 in 10 seek treatment. Females are an estimated nine times more likely to be affected than males.


Tips For Those Living with Raynaud's Disease
People who are prone to Raynaud's can take measures to avoid some Triggers, it is suggested that a patient living Raynaud's disease should do the following -
* Wrapping up and keeping the house warm when temperatures are cold
* As far as possible, avoiding emotional stress
* Participate in regular exercise to promote a healthy lifestyle and reduce stress
* Avoid medicines and substances that trigger the symptoms
* Patients should limit the consumption of caffeine and alcohol.
* Quit smoking
 Getting medical help may prevent a worsening of symptoms and serious complications.

Symptoms Of Raynaud's Disease

Raynaud's disease causes blood vessels in the hands or feet to overreact to the cold, causing numbness and pain.
Raynaud's disease affects some people when they are exposed to the cold.
When temperatures drop, the blood vessels contract in the fingers or toes. This contraction causes hypoxia, or lack of oxygen, to the affected tissues. Fingers and toes will feel cold to the touch and possibly numb. Often, the affected area will turn white, then later turn blue. Once the area is warmed and blood flow returns, a tingling sensation may accompany a red flush and, possibly, swelling. There may also be a painful, throbbing sensation.

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During an attack of Raynaud's, affected areas of your skin usually first turn white. Then, they often turn blue and feel cold and numb. As you warm and circulation improves, the affected areas may turn red, throb, tingle or swelling. Toes and fingers are most commonly affected, but Raynaud's can affect the nose, lips, and ears. Some women may experience Raynaud's phenomenon of the nipples, especially during breastfeeding. It causes severe throbbing, similar to that experienced with a fungal. Candida albicans (C. albicans) infection, which can lead to misdiagnosis. An episode normally lasts around 15 minutes, including the time it takes for the body to normalize.

Health Complications Of Raynaud's Disease

Chilblains happen when there is a problem with the blood circulation, and Raynaud's is one possible cause. The skin becomes itchy , red, and swollen and it may feel hot, burning, and tender. Chilblains usually resolve in 1 to 2 weeks, but they can come back. Keeping the extremities warm can help prevent them. If the hands and feet become cold, warm them slowly, as too much heat can cause further damage.

If secondary Raynaud's is severe which is rare diminished blood circulation to your fingers or toes could cause tissue damage.

  1. Also Read > 11 Causes Of Raynaud's Disease + Ways To Prevent Raynaud's Disease
  2. 4 Simple Treatments for Raynaud's Disease, Risks Factors And Remedies 
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A completely blocked artery can lead to sores (skin ulcers) or dead tissue (gangrene), both of which can be difficult to treat. Rarely, extreme untreated cases might require removing the affected part of your body (amputation).



4 Simple Treatments for Raynaud's Disease, Risks Factors And Remedies

4 Simple Treatments for Raynaud's Disease, Risks Factors And Remedies


Raynaud phenomenon manifests as recurrent vasospasm of the fingers and toes and usually occurs in response to stress or cold exposure. The phenomenon is named for Maurice Raynaud, who, as a medical student, defined the first case in 1862 as "episodic, symmetric, acral vasospasm characterized by pallor, cyanosis, suffusion and a sense of fullness.
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Raynaud's phenomenon most frequently affects women, especially in the second, third, or fourth decades of life. People can have Raynaud's phenomenon alone or as a part of other rheumatic diseases. Raynaud's phenomenon in children is essentially identical to Raynaud's phenomenon in adults. When it occurs alone, it is referred to as "Raynaud's disease" or primary Raynaud's phenomenon. When it accompanies other diseases, it is called secondary Raynaud's phenomenon.

Risk factors For Raynaud's Disease include:

  • Exposure to certain substances : This includes smoking, taking medications that affect the blood vessels and being exposed to certain chemicals, such as vinyl chloride. 
  • Sex : More women than men are affected.
  • Age : Although anyone can develop the condition, primary Raynaud's often begins between the ages of 15 and 30.
  • Climate : The disorder is also more common in people who live in colder climates.
  • Family history : A first-degree relative a parent, sibling or child having the disease appears to increase your risk of primary Raynaud's.
  • Associated diseases : These include conditions such as scleroderma and lupus.
  • Certain occupations : These include jobs that cause repetitive trauma, such as operating tools that vibrate.

How Raynaud's Disease Is Diagnosed

While the patient’s symptoms will be the first clue pointing to Raynaud’s disease, a number of tests may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Special blood tests called the antinuclear antibody test (ABA) and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are often abnormal when an individual has a connective tissue disease.
When a person has connective tissue disease, his or her capillaries are usually abnormal. A test called a nailfold capillary study can demonstrate such abnormalities.
In this test, a drop of oil is placed on the skin at the base of the fingernail. This allows the capillaries in that area to be viewed more easily with a microscope.
A cold stimulation test may also be performed. In this test, specialized thermometers are taped to each of the digits that have experienced episodes of Raynaud’s disease.
The at rest temperature of these digits is recorded. The hand or foot is then placed completely into a container of ice water for 20 seconds. After removing the hand or foot from this water, the temperature of the digits is recorded immediately.

The temperature of the digits is recorded every five minutes until they reach the same temperature they were before being put into the ice water. A normal result occurs when this pretest temperature is reached in 15 minutes or less. If it takes more than 20 minutes, the test is considered suspicious for Raynaud’s disease or phenomenon.

Treatments Of Raynaud's Disease


  1. Nerve surgery : Sympathetic nerves in your hands and feet control the opening and narrowing of blood vessels in your skin. Cutting these nerves interrupts their exaggerated responses. Through small incisions in the affected hands or feet, a doctor strips these tiny nerves around the blood vessels. This surgery (sympathectomy), if successful, might reduce the frequency and duration of attacks. 
  2. Calcium channel blockers : These drugs relax and open small blood vessels in your hands and feet, decreasing the frequency and severity of attacks in most people with Raynaud's. These drugs can also help heal skin ulcers on your fingers or toes. Examples include nifedipine (Afeditab CR, Procardia, others), amlodipine (Norvasc), felodipine and isradipine. 
  3. Nerve surgery: The vasoconstriction that causes Raynaud's is controlled by sympathetic nerves in the affected areas. A surgeon can make small incisions and strip the nerves away from the blood vessels, to decrease the frequency or severity of attacks. This is not always successful. 
  4. Chemical injection : Doctors can inject chemicals such as local anesthetics or onabotulinumtoxin type A (Botox) to block sympathetic nerves in affected hands or feet. You might need to have the procedure repeated if symptoms return or persist.

Simple Remedies

  • Avoid smoke : Smoking or inhaling secondhand smoke causes skin temperature to drop by constricting blood vessels, which can lead to an attack.
  • Exercise : Exercise can increase circulation, among other health benefits. If you have secondary Raynaud's, talk to your doctor before exercising outdoors in the cold.
  • Control stress : Learning to recognize and avoid stressful situations might help control the number of attacks.
  • Avoid rapidly changing temperatures : Try not to move from a hot environment to an air-conditioned room. If possible, avoid frozen-food sections of grocery stores.
11 Causes Of Raynaud's Disease + Ways To Prevent Raynaud's Disease

11 Causes Of Raynaud's Disease + Ways To Prevent Raynaud's Disease


Raynaud's disease is caused by peripheral blood vessels overreacting to cold.The condition affects 5-10 percent of Americans, Maurice Raynaud first described the disease in 1862. Females and people living in colder climates are more often affected.

Doctors don't completely understand the cause of Raynaud's attacks, but blood vessels in the hands and feet appear to overreact to cold temperatures or stress.

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 Secondary Raynaud phenomenon should be distinguished from primary Raynaud phenomenon (Raynaud disease). They are distinct disorders that share a similar name. Raynaud disease is characterized by the occurrence of the vasospasm alone, with no association with another illness. Secondary Raynaud phenomenon is a designation usually used in the context of vasospasm associated with another illness, most commonly an autoimmune disease.

Causes Of Raynaud's Disease

Before we start here we have to look at the two main types of the condition -

  • Primary Raynaud's : Also called Raynaud's disease, this most common form isn't the result of an associated medical condition. It can be so mild that many people with primary Raynaud's don't seek treatment. And it can resolve on its own.
  • Secondary Raynaud's : Also called Raynaud's phenomenon, this form is caused by an underlying problem. Although secondary Raynaud's is less common than the primary form, it tends to be more serious signs and symptoms of secondary Raynaud's usually appear around age 40, later than they do for primary Raynaud's.


Factors and diseases that can bring on Raynaud's disease include the following:


  1.  Exposure to cold or hot environments
  2. Collagen vascular diseases: Seventy percent of patients with scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) develop Raynaud's phenomenon. Other disorders associated with Raynaud's phenomenon include systemic lupus erythematosus , Sjögren's syndrome ,rheumatoid arthritis , mixed connective tissue disease, or dermatomyositis/ polymyositis. 
  3. Certain medications. These include beta blockers, used to treat high blood pressure; migraine medications that contain ergotamine or sumatriptan; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medications; certain chemotherapy agents; and drugs that cause blood vessels to narrow, such as some over-the-counter cold medications.
  4.  Repetitive action or vibration : Typing, playing piano or doing similar movements for long periods and operating vibrating tools, such as jackhammers, can lead to overuse injuries.
  5.  Smoking ( nicotine is a stimulant/vasoconstrictor)
  6. Chemical exposure (such as vinyl chloride)
  7. Arterial diseases, including atherosclerosis , thromboangiitis obliterans, or Buerger's disease, involving the small arteries and veins of the hands and feet also have an association with disk phenomenon.
  8. Neurologic disorders: Thoracic outlet syndrome, with compression of nerves as they course through the neck and shoulder area, carpal tunnel syndrome, and occasionally stroke, intervertebral disk disease, and spinal cord tumors may produce Raynaud's phenomenon. 
  9. Blood disorders that cause the blood to thicken or turn to sludge (polycythemia)
  10. Connective tissue diseases : Most people who have a rare disease that leads to hardening and scarring of the skin (scleroderma) have Raynaud's. Other diseases that increase the risk of Raynaud's include lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren's syndrome.
  11. Injuries to the hands or feet : These include wrist fracture, surgery or frostbite.

Ways To Prevent Raynaud's Disease

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  • Warm your car: Run your car heater for a few minutes before driving in cold weather.
  • Take precautions indoors. Wear socks. When taking food out of the refrigerator or freezer, wear gloves, mittens or oven mitts. Some people find it helpful to wear mittens and socks to bed during winter.Because air conditioning can trigger attacks, set your air conditioner to a warmer temperature. Use insulated drinking glasses. 
  • Put on proper clothes when outdoor : When it's cold, don a hat, scarf, socks and boots, and two layers of mittens or gloves before you go outside. Wear a coat with snug cuffs to go around your mittens or gloves, to prevent cold air from reaching your hands. Use chemical hand warmers. Wear earmuffs and a face mask if the tip of your nose and your earlobes are sensitive to cold.
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  2. 4 Simple Treatments for Raynaud's Disease, Risks Factors And Remedies
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To reduce the risk of an attack, it can help to keep the feet and hands warm, avoid smoking, and get enough exercise. If an attack starts, it may be reduced or prevented by warming the hands and feet at once, for example, by massaging them. The feet and hands should be protected from cuts, bruises, and other injuries as far as possible, because the lack of circulation can make it harder for them to heal.



Quick Treatments For Graves Diseases + How They Are Being Diagnosed

Quick Treatments For Graves Diseases + How They Are Being Diagnosed


Just as I have explained earlier, Graves' disease is a thyroid condition that results from abnormal stimulation of the thyroid  gland by a material in the blood referred to as thyroid stimulating immunoglobins (TSIs) that bind to and activate thyrotropin receptors.

Most people with Graves' disease have symptoms that are bothersome. If you have symptoms of Graves' disease, your doctor will do an exam and order one or more tests.


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Ways Graves Diseases Can Be Diagnosed
The diagnosis of Graves' disease may include:

1. Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU)
An RAIU tells how much iodine the thyroid takes up. The thyroid takes up iodine and uses it to make thyroid hormone. A high uptake suggests Graves' disease. This test can be helpful in ruling out other possible causes of overactive thyroid.

2. Blood sample
Your doctor will order blood tests to determine your levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the pituitary hormone that normally stimulates the thyroid gland, as well as levels of thyroid hormones. People with Graves' disease usually have lower than normal levels of TSH and higher levels of thyroid hormones.

3. Physical exam
Your doctor examines your eyes to see if they're irritated or protruding and looks to see if your thyroid gland is enlarged. Because Graves' disease increases your metabolism, your doctor will check your pulse and blood pressure and look for signs of tremor.

4. Ultrasound
Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of structures inside the body. Ultrasound can show if the thyroid gland is enlarged, and is most useful in people who can't undergo radioactive iodine uptake, such as pregnant women.


Treatments For Graves Diseases


  1. Radioactive iodine (RAI) : The thyroid gland uses iodine to make thyroid hormone. With this treatment, you swallow a pill that contains RAI, which is a form of iodine that damages the thyroid by giving it radiation  . The RAI destroys thyroid cells so that less thyroid hormone is made. This cures the overactive thyroid. But you will likely need to take thyroid hormone for the rest of your life to replace the needed thyroid hormone your body can no longer make. RAI has been used for a long time and does not harm other parts of the body or causeinfertility or birth defects. 
  2. Surgery : Surgery to remove all or part of your thyroid (thyroidectomy or subtotal thyroidectomy) also is an option for the treatment of Graves' disease. After the surgery, you'll likely need treatment to supply your body with normal amounts of thyroid hormones.Risks of this surgery include potential damage to the nerve that controls your vocal cords and the tiny glands located adjacent to your thyroid gland (parathyroid glands). Your parathyroid glands produce a hormone that controls the level of calcium in your blood. Complications are rare under the care of a surgeon experienced in thyroid surgery.
  3. Beta blockers : These medications don't inhibit the production of thyroid hormones, but they do block the effect of hormones on the body. They may provide fairly rapid relief of irregular heartbeats, tremors, anxiety or irritability, heat intolerance, sweating, diarrhea, and muscle weakness.

Beta blockers include:

  • Propranolol (Inderal)
  • Atenolol (Tenormin)
  • Metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol-XL)
  • Nadolol (Corgard)
Beta blockers aren't often prescribed for people with asthma, because the drugs may trigger an asthma attack. These drugs may also complicate management of diabetes.


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4. Orbital radiotherapy : Orbital radiotherapy was once a common treatment for Graves' ophthalmopathy, but the benefits of the procedure aren't clear. Orbital radiotherapy uses targeted X-rays over the course of several days to destroy some of the tissue behind your eyes. Your doctor may recommend orbital radiotherapy if your eye problems are worsening and prescription corticosteroids alone aren't effective or well-tolerated.

Apart from these treatments mentioned here there many other treatments options available. Most doctors suggests that you take a type of drug called a beta-blocker. Beta-blockers do not affect how much thyroid hormone is made. Rather, they block the action of thyroid hormone on your body. This slows down your heart rate and reduces symptoms such as shaking and nervousness. Beta-blockers work quickly and can help you feel better while waiting for the main treatment to take effect.

The treatment that is best for you will depend on many factors. Antithyroid drugs and RAI or a mix of both often are preferred. During and after treatment, your doctor will want to monitor your thyroid hormone levels. Ask how often you need to be seen for follow-up visits. Eating well and exercising can enhance the improvement in some symptoms while being treated and help you feel better in general. For example, because your thyroid controls your metabolism, you may have a tendency to gain weight when the hyperthyroidism is corrected. Brittle bones also can occur with Graves' disease, and weight-bearing exercises can help maintain bone density.

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When your eyes protrude, they're more vulnerable to ultraviolet rays and more sensitive to bright light. Wearing sunglasses that wrap around the sides of your head will also lessen the irritation of your eyes from the wind.



8 Factors That Causes Graves Disease, Know Them!

8 Factors That Causes Graves Disease, Know Them!




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Graves' disease is a thyroid  condition that results from abnormal stimulation of the thyroid  gland by a material in the blood referred to as thyroid stimulating immunoglobins (TSIs) that bind to and activate thyrotropin receptors. Graves' disease affects both men and women; however, women are affected about 8- 10 times more often than men.

If left untreated, Graves disease can cause severe thyrotoxicosis. A life-threatening thyrotoxic crisis (ie, thyroid storm ) can occur. Long-standing severe thyrotoxicosis leads to severe weight loss with catabolism of bone and muscle. Cardiac complications and psychocognitive complications can cause significant morbidity. Graves disease is also associated with ophthalmopathy, dermopathy, and acropachy. Thyroid storm is an exaggerated state of thyrotoxicosis. It occurs in patients who have unrecognized or inadequately treated thyrotoxicosis and a superimposed precipitating event such as thyroid surgery, nonthyroidal surgery, infection, or trauma. When thyroid storm was first described, the acute mortality rate was nearly 100%. In current practice, with aggressive therapy and early recognition of the syndrome, the mortality rate is approximately 20%.
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Patients Should Note! 
Awareness of the symptoms related to hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism is important, especially in the titration of antithyroid agents and in replacement therapy for hypothyroidism.
Patients also should be aware of the potential adverse effects of these medicines. They should watch for fever, sore throat, and throat ulcers.
Patients also must be instructed to avoid cold medicines that contain alpha-adrenergic agonists such as ephedrine or pseudoephedrine.

Causes Of Graves Disease

Graves' disease is caused by a malfunction in the body's disease-fighting immune system, although the exact reason why this happens is still unknown.
One normal immune system response is the production of antibodies designed to target a specific virus, bacterium or other foreign substance. Many factors are thought to play a role in getting Graves' disease. These might include:

1. Gender
Sex hormones might play a role, and might explain why Graves' disease affects more women than men. As with most autoimmune diseases, susceptibility is increased in females. Hyperthyroidism due to Graves disease has a female-to-male ratio of 7-8:1.
The female-to-male ratio for pretibial myxedema is 3.5:1. Only 7% of patients with localized myxedema have thyroid acropachy. Unlike the other manifestations of Graves disease, the female-to-male ratio for thyroid acropachy is 1:1.


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2. Smoking
Cigarette smoking, which can affect the immune system, increases the risk of Graves' disease. Smokers who have Graves' disease are also at increased risk of developing Graves' ophthalmopathy.

3. Age
Typically, Graves disease is a disease of young women, but it may occur in persons of any age. The typical age range is 20-40 years, most affected women are aged 30-60 years.

4. Pregnancy
Pregnancy affects the thyroid. As many as 30 percent of young women who get Graves' disease have been pregnant in the 12 months prior to the onset of symptoms. This suggests that pregnancy might trigger Graves' disease in some women.

5. Stress
Severe emotional stress or trauma
might trigger the onset of Graves' disease in people who are prone to getting it. Stressful life events or illness may act as a trigger for the onset of Graves' disease among people who are genetically susceptible.

6. Other autoimmune disorders
People with other disorders of the immune system, such as type 1 diabetes oru rheumatoid arthritis, have an increased risk.

7. Race
In whites, autoimmune thyroid diseases are, based on linkage analysis, linked with the following loci: AITD1, CTLA4, GD1, GD2, GD3, HT1, and HT2. Different loci have been reported to be linked with autoimmune thyroid diseases in persons of other races.
Susceptibility is influenced by genes in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region on chromosome 6 and in CTLA4 on band 2q33. Association with specific HLA haplotypes has been observed and is found to vary with ethnicity.
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8. Family history
Because a family history of Graves' disease is a known risk factor, there is likely a gene or genes that can make a person more susceptible to the disorder. Some people are prone to Graves' disease because of their genes. Researchers are working to find the gene or genes involved.

  1. Also Read > Understanding Graves’ Disease, Early Warnings And Health Risks
Possible complications of Graves' disease during pregnancy include miscarriage, preterm birth, fetal thyroid dysfunction, poor fetal growth, maternal heart failure and preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a maternal condition that results in high blood pressure and other serious signs and symptoms.


Thursday, 28 December 2017

Understanding Graves’ Disease, Early Warnings And Health Risks

Understanding Graves’ Disease, Early Warnings And Health Risks

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Graves’ disease is named for the doctor who first described it in Ireland Robert J. Graves. He noticed it in a patient in 1835. The disease is also referred to as Basedow’s disease named after a German, Karl Adolph van Basedow, who described the disease in 1840. He didn’t know that Graves had described the same disease just a few years earlier. The term Basedow’s disease is more commonly used in continental Europe; in the United States, it’s called Graves’ disease.
Graves’ disease is a type of autoimmune problem that causes the thyroid gland to produce too much thyroid hormone, which is called hyperthyroidism.
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Graves’ disease is often the underlying cause of hyperthyroidism. It is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in the United States. It is named after Robert Graves, an Irish physician, who described this form of hyperthyroidism about 150 years ago. It is 7-8 times more common in women than men.
In some patients, Graves disease represents a part of more extensive autoimmune processes leading to dysfunction of multiple organs (eg polyglandular autoimmune syndromes). Graves disease is associated with pernicious anemia , vitiligo , diabetes mellitus type 1 , autoimmune adrenal insufficiency, systemic sclerosis, myasthenia gravis , Sjögren syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis , and systemic lupus erythematosus .


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Health Complications
Complications of Graves' disease can include:

Eye Problems: Eye problems connected to Graves’ disease can go from very mild to very severe. Less severe but still bothersome eye symptoms include red eye, tearing, a feeling of sand or dust in the eye(s), and sensitivity to light. Eye disease related to Graves’ disease is called Graves’ ophthalmopathy.

Heart disorders : If left untreated, Graves' disease can lead to heart rhythm disorders, changes in the structure and function of the heart muscles, and the inability of the heart to pump enough blood to the body (congestive heart failure).

Skin Thickening: Some patients with Graves’ disease may develop thickening of the skin over the front of the lower leg called the tibia. The disorder causes skin lesions that are patchy and pink. Rarely are other areas of skin affected. This skin problem is also called pretibial myxedema.

Pregnancy problems: Possible complications of Graves' disease during pregnancy include miscarriage, preterm birth, fetal thyroid dysfunction, poor fetal growth, maternal heart failure and preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a maternal condition that results in high blood pressure and other serious signs and symptoms.

Goiter: A goiter is an enlarged thyroid gland. A goiter related to Graves’ disease is a diffuse thyrotoxic goiter. As the thyroid gets bigger, the patient’s neck may begin to look full or swollen. Sometimes a goiter makes swallowing difficult, causes coughing, and may disrupt sleep.
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Early Symptoms Of Graves Disease
The early symptoms of Graves’ disease includes :

  • Weight loss—despite increased appetite
  • Anxiety, restlessness, tremors, irritability, difficulty sleeping (insomnia)
  • Heat intolerance, sweating 
  • Chest pain, palpitations
  • Shortness of breath, difficulty breathing
  • Increased stool frequency (with or without diarrhea)
  • Irregular menstrual periods
  • Muscle weakness
  • Difficulty controlling diabetes
  • Goiterr
  • Pominent, bulging eyes
  • Vision problems (such as double vision)






Understanding Crohn's disease, Health Effects And Causes

Understanding Crohn's disease, Health Effects And Causes


Crohn’s disease is a chronic, lifelong condition which is part of a group of conditions known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) . It causes inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (gut). This inflammation can be anywhere from the mouth to the anus and most commonly affects the end of the small bowel (the ileum) and the beginning of the colon. Crohn’s disease is named after Dr Burrill B. Crohn, who first described the disease in 1932 along with colleagues Dr. Leon Ginzburg and Dr, Gordon D. Oppenheimer.
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Crohn's disease is a chronic (long-term) condition that causes inflammation of the digestive tract. It is a type of inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn's disease can be painful, debilitating, and, sometimes, life-threatening. Crohn's disease, also called ileitis or enteritis, can affect any part of the gut, from the mouth all the way down to the anus. In the majority of cases, however, the lower part of the small intestine - the ileum - is affected.

Symptoms Of Crohn's Disease
Some of the common symptoms of Crohn’s disease include:
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* Abdominal pain
* Anal fissure. This is a small tear in the tissue that lines the anus or in the skin around the anus where infections can occur.
* Blood in your stool
* Ongoing bouts of diarrhea that don't respond to over-the-counter (OTC) medications
* Unexplained fever lasting more than a day or two
* Unexplained weight loss
* Bowel obstruction: Crohn's disease affects the thickness of the intestinal wall. Over time, parts of the bowel can scar and narrow, which may block the flow of digestive contents
* Ulcers. Chronic inflammation can lead to open sores (ulcers) anywhere in your digestive tract, including your mouth and anus, and in the genital area (perineum)

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* Diarrhoea which may be mixed with mucus
* Abdominal cramps and pain
* Constipation
* Tiredness and fatigue
* Feeling generally unwell
* Loss of appetite
* Unintended weight loss
* Inflammation of skin, eyes and joints
* Inflammation of the liver or bile ducts
* Delayed growth or sexual development, in children
* Anemia: A loss of blood can lead to anemia .

Causes Of Crohn's Disease
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The exact cause of Crohn's disease is unclear, but it is thought to stem from an abnormal reaction in the immune system. The theory is that the immune system attacks foods, good bacteria, and beneficial substances as if they are unwanted substances. During the attack, white blood cells build up in the lining of the gut, and this buildup triggers inflammation. The inflammation leads to ulcerations and bowel injury.

In addition, Crohn's disease is more common in people who have family members with the disease, so genes may play a role in making people more susceptible. However, most people with Crohn's disease don't have a family history of the disease.




Effective Treatments For Crohn's Disease, Try This Steps

Effective Treatments For Crohn's Disease, Try This Steps

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Crohn's disease, also called ileitis or enteritis, can affect any part of the gut, from the mouth all the way down to the anus. In the majority of cases, however, the lower part of the small intestine the ileum is affected. Treatment of Crohn disease has changed over the past few years, reflecting new therapies that can target specific locations in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and specific cytokines. The development of biologic anti–tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents (eg, infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, and natalizumab) has significantly advanced the treatment of Crohn disease and improved the induction and maintenance of clinical remission in patients with moderate to severe disease, especially in those who are corticosteroid dependent.


If medical therapy for active Crohn disease fails, surgical resection of the inflamed bowel, with restoration of continuity, is indicated. Urgent surgery may be required in rare cases of sustained or recurrent hemorrhage, perforation, abscess, and toxic megacolon. Partial small bowel obstruction or intra-abdominal abscess may sometimes be treated conservatively with intravenous (IV) hydration, nasogastric suction, and parenteral nutrition if there is no evidence of ischemia.
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There is a wide range of treatment options available that can help control Crohn’s symptoms and even help you achieve and maintain remission (having few or no symptoms over a period of time) as long as you stay on your treatment as prescribed. In fact, achieving and maintaining remission is the main goal of Crohn’s disease treatment.


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Treatments For Crohn's Disease

Surgery
The majority of Crohn's disease patients may need surgery at some point. When medications no longer control symptoms, the only solution is to operate. Surgery can relieve symptoms that did not respond to medication, or to correct complications, such as abscess, perforation, bleeding, and blockage.

Medications
If a person does not respond to sulfasalazine, the doctor may prescribe other types of drugs that contain 5-ASA. Corticosteroids such as prednisone are another class of drugs that reduce inflammation. A doctor is likely to prescribe an initial large dose of prednisone when the disease is very active. The dose is then tapered off. A problem with corticosteroids is the large number of possible side effects some of them serious such as a higher susceptibility to infection and stomach ulcers.
Anti-inflammation drugs - the doctor will most likely start with mesalamine (Sulfasalazine), which helps control inflammation.
Cortisone or steroids - corticosteroids are drugs containing cortisone and steroids.
Immunosuppressant drugs - these drugs reduce the patient's immune response. The doctor may prescribe 6-mercaptopurine or a related drug, azathioprine. Side effects include vomiting, nausea, and a weaker resistance to infection.
Infliximab (Remicade) - this blocks the body's inflammation response.
Antibiotics - fistulas, strictures, or prior surgery may cause bacterial overgrowth. Doctors will generally treat this by prescribing ampicillin, sulfonamide, cephalosporin, tetracycline, or metronidazole.
Anti-diarrheal and fluid replacements - when the inflammation subsides, diarrhea usually becomes less of a problem. However, sometimes the patient may need something for diarrhea and abdominal pain.
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Although Crohn's disease can affect any ethnic group, whites and people of Eastern European (Ashkenazi) Jewish descent have the highest risk. However, the incidence of Crohn's disease is increasing among blacks who live in North America and the United Kingdom. Cigarette smoking is the most important controllable risk factor for developing Crohn's disease. Smoking also leads to more-severe disease and a greater risk of having surgery. If you smoke, it's important to stop.




What Parkinson's Disease Is + 9 Early Symptoms You Must Know

What Parkinson's Disease Is + 9 Early Symptoms You Must Know


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Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects movement. It develops gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. But while a tremor may be the most well-known sign of Parkinson's disease, the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement. Most individuals with Parkinson's disease are diagnosed when they are 60 years old or older, but early-onset Parkinson's disease also occurs.

With proper treatment, most individuals with Parkinson's disease can lead long, productive lives for many years after diagnosis. The progression of Parkinson's disease and the degree of impairment vary from individual to individual. Many people with Parkinson's disease live long productive lives, whereas others become disabled much more quickly. Premature death is usually due to complications such as falling-related injuries or
pneumonia . Most individuals who develop Parkinson's disease are 60 years of age or older. Since overall life expectancy is rising, the number of individuals with Parkinson's disease will increase in the future. Adult-onset Parkinson's disease is most common, but early-onset Parkinson's disease (onset between 21-40 years), and juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease (onset before age 21) also exist.

Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease You Should Be Aware Of -

1. Loss of Smell
Have you noticed you no longer smell certain foods very well? If you seem to have more trouble smelling foods like bananas, dill pickles or licorice, you should ask your doctor about Parkinson's.

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2. Tremor
A tremor, or shaking, usually begins in a limb, often your hand or fingers. You may notice a back-and-forth rubbing of your thumb and forefinger, known as a pill-rolling tremor. One characteristic of Parkinson's disease is a tremor of your hand when it is relaxed (at rest).

3. Bradykinesia
Slowness of voluntary movement. Over time, it may become difficult to initiate movement and to complete movement. Bradykinesia together with stiffness can also affect the facial muscles and result in an expressionless, "mask-like" appearance.

4. Trouble Sleeping
Do you thrash around in bed or act out dreams when you are deeply asleep? Sometimes, your spouse will notice or will want to move to another bed. Sudden movements during sleep may be a sign of Parkinson's disease.

5. Impaired Posture And Balance
 Your posture may become stooped, or you may have balance problems as a result of Parkinson's disease.

6. Loss Of Automatic Movements
In Parkinson's disease, you may have a decreased ability to perform unconscious movements, including blinking, smiling or swinging your arms when you walk.

7. Constipation
Do you have trouble moving your bowels without straining every day? Straining to move your bowels can be an early sign of Parkinson's disease and you should talk to your doctor.

8. Speech changes
 You may have speech problems as a result of Parkinson's disease. You may speak softly, quickly, slur or hesitate before talking. Your speech may be more of a monotone rather than with the usual inflections.

9. Dizziness or Fainting
Do you notice that you often feel dizzy when you stand up out of a chair? Feeling dizzy or fainting can be a sign of low blood pressure and can be linked to Parkinson's disease (PD).

Malnutrition and weight maintenance is often an issue for people with Parkinson's disease. Here are some tips to help you maintain a healthy weight.
Weigh yourself once or twice a week, unless your doctor recommends weighing yourself often. If you are taking diuretics or steroids, such as prednisone, you should weigh yourself daily.

  1. ALSO READ - Best 7 Days Diet Plans For Women's Healthy Living
  2. 5 Main Stages Of Parkinson's Disease, Its Effects On Each Stage
  3. 8 Major Causes Of Parkinson's Disease You Should Note Today

Avoid low-fat or low-calorie products. (unless other dietary guidelines have been recommended). Use whole milk, whole milk cheese, and yogurt.




8 Major Causes Of Parkinson's Disease You Should Note Today

8 Major Causes Of Parkinson's Disease You Should Note Today


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Parkinson’s disease affects the nerve cells in the brain that produce dopamine. Parkinson’s disease symptoms include muscle rigidity, tremors, and changes in speech and gait. After diagnosis, treatments can help relieve symptoms, but there is no cure. Parkinson's disease symptoms and signs may vary from person to person. Early signs may be mild and may go unnoticed. Symptoms often begin on one side of your body and usually remain worse on that side, even after symptoms begin to affect both sides.
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A diagnosis of Parkinson's disease especially in the early phase can be challenging due to similarities to related movement disorders and other conditions with Parkinson-like symptoms. Individuals may sometimes be misdiagnosed as having another disorder, and sometimes individuals with Parkinson-like symptoms may be inaccurately diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease. It is therefore important to re-evaluate individuals in the early phase on a regular basis to rule out other conditions that may be responsible for the symptoms.

Causes Of Parkinson's Disease

1. Genetics
A number of genetic factors have been shown to increase a person's risk of developing Parkinson's disease, although exactly how these make some people more susceptible to the condition is unclear.
Parkinson's disease can run in families as a result of faulty genes being passed to a child by their parents. However, it's rare for the disease to be inherited this way.

2. Environmental Factors
Exposure to certain toxins or environmental factors may increase the risk of later Parkinson's disease, but the risk is relatively small. Researchers have also noted that many changes occur in the brains of people with Parkinson's disease, although it's not clear why these changes occur. These changes include:

  • The presence of Lewy bodies. Clumps of specific substances within brain cells are microscopic markers of Parkinson's disease. These are called Lewy bodies, and researchers believe these Lewy bodies hold an important clue to the cause of Parkinson's disease.
  • Alpha-synuclein is found within the body. Although many substances are found within Lewy bodies, scientists believe an important one is the natural and widespread protein called alpha-synuclein (A-synuclein). It's found in all Lewy bodies in a clumped form that cells can't break down. This is currently an important focus among Parkinson's disease researchers.

3. Medication (Drug-induced Parkinsonism) Where symptoms develop after taking certain medications, such as some types of antipsychotic medication, and usually improve once the medication is stopped


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4. Other Progressive Brain Conditions
 such as progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple systems atrophy, and
corticobasal degeneration

5. Age
Young adults rarely experience Parkinson's disease. It ordinarily begins in middle or late life, and the risk increases with age. People usually develop the disease around age 60 or older.
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6. Cerebrovascular Disease
where a series of small strokes cause several parts of the brain to die.

7. Sex
Men are more likely to develop Parkinson's disease than are women.

8. Serious Head Injury
If you hit your head hard enough to lose consciousness or forget things as a result of it, you may be more likely to get Parkinson's later in life.

Scientists currently believe that Parkinson's disease is triggered through a complex combination of genetic susceptibility and exposure to environmental factors such as toxins, illness, and trauma.



5 Main Stages Of Parkinson's Disease, Its Effects On Each Stage

5 Main Stages Of Parkinson's Disease, Its Effects On Each Stage

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An individual with Parkinson's disease has abnormally low dopamine levels. Dopamine-generating cells, known as dopaminergic neurons (types of nerve cells) in the substantia nigra part of the brain have died. Experts do not know why these cells die.
When dopamine levels are too low, people find it harder to get things done, to control their movements.

Dopamine levels progressively drop in patients with the disease, so their symptoms gradually become more severe. Dopamine is involved in the sending of messages to the part of the brain that controls coordination and movement.

Stages of Parkinson's Disease

       STAGE ONE
Stage one is the mildest form of Parkinson’s. At this stage, there may be symptoms, but they’re not severe enough to interfere with daily tasks and overall lifestyle. In fact, the symptoms are so minimal at this stage that they’re often missed. But family and friends may notice changes in your posture, walk, or facial expressions.
A distinct symptom of stage 1 Parkinson’s is that tremors and other difficulties in movement are generally exclusive to one side of the body. Prescribed medications can work effectively to minimize and reduce symptoms at this stage.
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     STAGE TWO
Symptoms start getting worse. Tremor, rigidity and other movement symptoms affect both sides of the body. Walking problems and poor posture may be apparent. The person is still able to live alone, but daily tasks are more difficult and lengthy.

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     STAGE THREE
Stage three is the middle stage in Parkinson’s, and it marks a major turning point in the progression of the disease. Many of the symptoms are the same as those in stage 2. However, you’re now more likely to experience loss of balance and decreased reflexes. Your movements become slower overall. This is why falls become more common in stage three.
Parkinson’s significantly affects daily tasks at this stage, but people are still able to complete them. Medication combined with occupational therapy may help decrease symptoms.

     STAGE FOUR
At this point, symptoms are severe and limiting. It’s possible to stand without assistance, but movement may require a walker. The person needs help with activities of daily living and is unable to live alone.

      STAGE FIVE
Stage five is the most advanced stage of Parkinson’s disease. Advanced stiffness in the legs can also cause freezing upon standing, making it impossible to stand or walk. People in this stage require wheelchairs, and they’re often unable to stand on their own without falling.

Around-the-clock assistance is required to prevent falls. Up to 30 percent of people at stage 4 and 5 experience confusion, hallucinations, and delusions. Hallucinations occur when you see things that aren’t there. Delusions happen when you believe things that aren’t true, even when you have been presented with evidence that your belief is wrong. Dementia is also common, affecting up to 75 percent of people with Parkinson’s.
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The symptoms and disease progression are unique to each person, knowing the typical stages of Parkinson’s can help you cope with changes as they occur. Some people experience the changes over 20 years or more. Others find the disease progresses more quickly. There is no definite cure for Parkinson’s disease. There is also no definite known cause. It’s likely due to a combination of an individual’s susceptibility and environmental factors. Most cases of Parkinson’s disease happen without a genetic link. Only 10 percent of people with Parkinson’s report having a family member with the disease. Many toxins are suspected and have been studied, but no single substance can be reliably linked to Parkinson’s.



Wednesday, 27 December 2017

All About Lyme Disease, Effective Treatments And Symptoms

All About Lyme Disease, Effective Treatments And Symptoms


Lyme disease is diagnosed based on the patient's clinical signs of illness and the detection of antibodies to the causative bacteria in the blood. Lyme disease  is an illness that is spread by bites from ticks infected by the bacterium (Borrelia burgdorferi , Borrelia afzelii , or Borrelia garinii.) Lyme disease  can affect the skin, joints, heart, and the nervous system.


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Lyme disease is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected ticks of the Ixodes genus. Usually, the tick must be attached for 36 to 48 hours before the bacteria can spread. In North America, Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii are the cause. In Europe and Asia, the bacteria Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii are alsoy causes of the disease. The disease does not appear to be transmissible between people, by other animals, or through food. Diagnosis is based upon a combination of symptoms, history of tick exposure, and possibly testing for specific antibodies in the blood.
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Lyme disease is medically described in three phases (stages) as:
1. Early localized disease with skin inflammation and rash
2. Early disseminated disease with heart and nervous system involvement, including palsies and
meningitis; and
3. Late disease featuring motor and sensory nerve damage and brain inflammation, as well as arthritis .

Treatments For Lyme Disease


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Lyme disease is usually curable with antibiotics. This is so true that some authors of Lyme disease research have stated that the most common cause of lack of response of Lyme disease to antibiotics is a lack of Lyme disease to begin with! The type of antibiotic depends on the stage of the disease (early or late) and what areas of the body are affected. Early illness is usually effectively treated with medications taken by mouth, for example, doxycycline ( Vibramycin), amoxicillin ( Amoxil ), or cefuroxime axetil ( Ceftin ). This antibiotic therapy generally result in a rapid cure of Lyme disease. Of note, doxycycline should not be used in pregnancy or in children under 8 years of age.
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Symptoms Of Lyme Disease

  1. Fever, chills, headache, fatigue, muscle and joint aches, and swollen lymph nodes.
  2.  Severe headaches and neck stiffness
  3. Additional EM rashes on other areas of the body
  4. Arthritis with severe joint pain and swelling, particularly the knees and other large joints.
  5. Facial palsy (loss of muscle tone or droop on one or both sides of the face)
  6. Intermittent pain in tendons, muscles, joints, and bones
  7.  Heart palpitations or an irregular heart beat ( Lyme carditis )
  8.  Episodes of dizziness or shortness of breath



Understanding Peyronie Disease, Causes, Symptoms And Treatments

Understanding Peyronie Disease, Causes, Symptoms And Treatments

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Peyronie's disease sometimes goes away on its own. But in most cases, it will remain stable or worsen. Treatment might be needed if the curvature is severe enough that it prevents successful sexual intercourse.Peyronie's disease (also termed Peyronie disease) is the development of scar tissue inside the penis that causes the penis to develop abnormal curvature (contracture) in the scarred area. The disease may occur in about 1% to 8% of men, most frequently in men aged about 40 to 70 years old.

Peyronie's disease is diagnosed by physical examination of the penis that shows abnormal curvature and plaque/scar formation that may be palpated.

Symptoms Of Peyronie Disease

Symptoms may develop slowly or appear overnight. When the penis is soft, you can’t see a problem. But in severe cases, the hardened plaque hampers flexibility, causing pain and forcing the penis to bend or arc when erect.
In most cases, the pain eases over time, but the bend in the penis can worsen.
Some men with the condition develop scar tissue elsewhere in the body, such as on the hand or foot. Men with Dupuytren's contractures scarring in the hand that affects fingers seem to be more likely to get Peyronie's.

Causes Of Peyronie Disease

The exact cause of Peyronie's disease is not known. However, whatever can cause plaque or scar formation in the penile shaft is a likely causal candidate. Researchers have suggested several possible agents such as vitamin E deficiency, beta-blocking medications, elevations in serotonin, and genetic causes.

  • STDs with symptoms of burning, itching, painful urination, discharge, or blood in the urine. 
  •  Infections or inflammation such as balantis
  •  Persistent erection (priapism)
  •  Peyronie's disease
  •  Cancer

Phases Of Peyronie Disease

There are, in general, two phases of Peyronie's disease.

1. The acute phase lasts about 18 to 24 months and usually has the highest pain component.
2. The chronic phase (begins at about 18 to 24 months after first symptoms) usually has less pain but in this stage, the plaque or scarring is more refractory to treatment (see below) and may begin to develop large calcium deposits (calcified plaque or scarring).



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Treatments For Peyronie Disease

Lifestyle changes may reduce the health risks related to Peyronie’s disease. These include:

  • quitting smoking.
  •  reducing alcohol consumption.
  •  stopping use of illegal drugs.
  •  exercising regularly


First, your doctor will probably prescribe a pill, such as pentoxifylline or potassium para-aminobenzoate ( Potaba). If those don’t work, you may get a shot of verapamil or collagenase ( Xiaflex ) into the scar tissue of the penis. If nothing else works, your doctor may consider surgery, but usually only for men who can’t have sex because of their Peyronie’s disease.
The two most common operations are:

  • Remove the plaque and get a tissue graft in its place.R
  • emove or alter the tissue on the side of the penis opposite the plaque, which counters the disease's bending effect.

Unfortunately, these procedures aren’t a sure solution. With the first method, you could have some erection problems. The second method, which doctors call the Nesbit procedure, shortens the erect penis.